Delft – What Happens after the 80 Years War

Europe, Netherlands

The pace of history thus far in Delft (my previous Delft blog) has been not short of intense. So where did I get up to? William of Orange has been assasinated, the 80 Year War of Independence from Spain is still raging, the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) are looting Portugese ships. And inspired by stolen Mingware, the ceramics industry blossoms in Holland.

  • Start of Day Trip: Den Haag Spoor Station, Netherlands
  • Cost of Day Out: Expensive (£££)
  • Historical Content: High

1648 sees the end of the 80 Years War with Spain. Although the Dutch blockade of the Spanish-ruled southern Provinces (i.e. Belgium) continues, old quarrels are forgotten as both Spain and the Netherlands become concern by the threat from the French. Whatever the reason, Delft is now part of a recognised Dutch Republic by the Spanish.

Delft is now part of the Dutch Republic

The Dutch are still not done with wars by a long shot. 1652 – 1654 sees the first Anglo-Dutch War, a dispute over the ownership of the seas between England and Holland. It ends with the Battle of Scheveningen (covered in my Scheveningen blog) which sees a Dutch hero die. Maarten Tromp is buried in the most ostentatious of tombs in the oldest building in Delft, [6] the Oude Kerk (original buiding, 1050).

Maarten Tromp is buried in the beautiful Oude Kerk

The war with the Portugese ends in 1661, when the Dutch have more or less taken over all Portugese territories abroad. This includes the trading post of Melaka in 1641, which I visited earlier in the year (my Melaka blog) where I walk through the history of a colony ruled by the Portugese, followed by the Dutch.

The Dutch get A Foothold, or Should I Say Cloghold in the Far East

There ought to be a proverb about not putting all your gunpowder in one place. Well, the Dutch do exactly that, all 40 tons of it. In 1654, the Delft Thunderclap, a terrific ammunition explosion, devastates the city, including the Oude and Nieuwe Kerk. But the explosion yields new opportunities for one industry. The ceramics industry expands by taking over the damaged breweries of the already declining beer industry.

Vermeer’s Painting of a Reconstructed Delft a Few Years after the Thunderclap

Vermeer is an adult during the Delft Thunderclap. But he only starts producing paintings around 1658. The 17th century is the Golden Age of Dutch Art, when Dutch artists produce between 5-10 million paintings. But Vermeer only paints around 40-50 paintings, a relatively low number. All of his paintings are reproduced and displayed at [7]the Vermeer Centrum. And whats more, I love the fact that they have done so in chronological order.

I Can’t get Enough of Vermeer at the Vermeer Centre

1672 is Holland’s Year of Disaster (het Rampjaar). A full European invasion of English, French and German forces take much of the Dutch by surprise. In 1673 Vermeer is enlisted in the army. Nobody has heard of him. Nobody knows about his paintings. He dies in 1675, of illness, a pauper, unknown, leaving his family in lots of debt. Vemeer is buried in the Oude Kerk, but the exact location of his grave is not known.

I Wonder What Happens to the Indebted  Vermeer’s Art After his Death

History jumps a century to 1795, when Napoleon invades the Netherlands. The Dutch ceramic industry declines in the economic upheaval, allowing the English potteries to gain ascendency. Napoleon renames the Netherlands as the Batavian Republic.

Delft is now part of the Batavian Republic

Some supporrters of the liberty, equality and fraternity call of the French revolution, raid the Oude Kerk and its leaning tower called Scheve Jan or Crooked Jan (covered in scaffolding when I was there). Their purpose is to hack away at the coat of arms and other symbols of class that adorn all of the elaborate tombs here.

Some Tombs in the Oude Kerk are Turned Over Temporarily to Avoid Damage During the French Invasion

Fast forward another century, in 1876, Joost Thooft takes over De Procelyn Fles (The Procelain Jar), the only surviving procelain factory in Delft. The walk to today’s [8] Royal Delft Factory is quite an enjoyable little walk, taking me past beds of pansies, tulips, murals, a button shop, a mosaic sofa and a mini library towards an area of light industry, just on the outskirts of the city’s canals.

The Things I come Across as I wander to the Royal Delft Factory

The museum is a tourist magnet, and so I’m not suprised at the queues. I decide to do the tour in reverse order to bypass the traffic. The audio guide narrates the history of Delft ceramics very well, with displays of ceramics over the different eras.

Wonderful Displays of Ceramics as I Learn About the History of Delft

I also see a Master Painter (minimum 10 years experience) at work. And no where more does the skill of the Delft Master Painters shine through but on what is the highlight of the museum for me, the 480 ceramic tile replica of Rembrandt’s Nightwatch.

The Ceramic Nightwatchmen at the Royal Delft Factory

The former home of another Delft artist, Paul Tetar van Elven (1823 – 1896) is now the [9] Museum Paul Tetar van Elvan. It displays his original works, and also the copies he painted, including Raphael and Rubens. As a collector, his Chinese, Japanese and Dutch ceramics are also showcased. The architecture of the house itself ranges from the 19th century main quarters to the delightful creaking 17th century timber attic.

The Museum of Paul Tetar van Elvan

Whilst Paul Tetar is still alive, the Industrial Revolution is reaching its peak. Factory workers across Europe live in impoverished and neglected housing. A Dutch industrialist named Jacob van Marken purchases [10] Agnetapark in 1887 to rehouse his workers in much better conditions. This park still sits in a semi urban -industrial setting just along the main road into Delft.

The Things I see as I Walk to Agnetha Park just to the North of Delft Centre

What is fascinating about this story is not Jacob, but Agneta Matthes, who matches Jacob in the drive for business and social reform. Rules in those days required a married woman to have the approval of her husband to conduct business, which is why not much is heard of her. Her story of business and social acumen, dealing with her husband’s infidelity and a park which didn’t go down too well with the workers initially, makes quite an interesting read.

The Semi Urban – Industrial Setting of Agnetha Park
Delft has proven to be my whistle stop tour of Dutch history. Yet I’ve skipped so much, which can only mean one thing. My journey through the history of the Low Countries isn’t over yet.

Tips and Information

  • Train tickets in Holland can be purchased at stations or by using the prepaid OV Chipcard. From the Hague, the daily travel pass can be used on Tram #1 to Delft
  • Oude Kerk / Nieuwe Kerk (websites) – closed to the public on Sundays
  • Vermeer Centrum Delft (website) – open daily, discount with the Dutch Museum Card
  • Royal Delft Factory (website) – open daily, discount with the Dutch Museum Card
  • Museum Paul Tetar van Elven (website) – closed Monday, afternoons only, entrance fee applies, free with Museumcard.
  • Agnetapark – 24/7, free
My Route Around Delft

 

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